The next revolutionizing material is the 2-dimensional form of graphite, the material used to make pencil lead. Graphene layers held together by Van Der Waals forces form graphite.
Graphene, just like diamond, is a carbon allotrope with sp2 bonds tightly bound in a hexagonal honeycomb lattice. So let’s learn about the different Graphene-based Devices!
1. Introduction to Graphene
The next revolutionizing material is the 2-dimensional form of graphite, the material used to make pencil lead. Graphene layers held together by Van Der Waals forces form graphite. Graphene, just like diamond, is a carbon allotrope with sp2 bonds tightly bound in a hexagonal honeycomb lattice
The miraculous material has various useful properties like photo-sensitivity, transparency, lightweight, high tensile strength, and many more. It is the same material as diamond. The structural difference between the two materials makes them such have such contrasting properties.
Since graphene was discovered, its applications have been hypothesized. A great deal was expected from the material that was the first 2D material to have been discovered.
In 2004, a lump of graphite and some tape that had been chemically decomposed led to the discovery of graphene. Sir Andre Konstantin Geim and Sir Konstantin Sergeevich Novoselov were awarded the Nobel Prize for this discovery in 2010. They were aware of its extraordinary abilities because of the field effect.
Graphene was theorized much before 2004. It’s interesting to note that the name “Graphene” was first used to describe the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in graphite in 1986 by a group of forward-thinking scientists.
1.2 Development of Graphene
The wonder material was expected to be strong enough to be used to build an elevator into space. But this has been delayed for two reasons. One was its cost and the second was the method of development.
The quality of graphene wasn’t assured to conduct satisfactory research. Multiple methods of graphene development have been in practice. Liquid Phase Exfoliation (LPE) of graphite is one of the methods that is most frequently used. The foundation of LPE is the idea that graphite is a layered material, where each layer may be thought of as a collection of individual graphene crystals.
The bottom-up graphene that is produced is frequently of very high quality. Bottom-up techniques heavily rely on carbon-rich materials’ chemical vapour-phase deposition (CVD). Top-down approaches, on the other hand, are far more scalable and cheap. A typical intermediate stage in large-scale manufacturing methods is the exfoliation of graphene oxide (GO), followed by reduction into reduced graphene oxide (rGO).
The Flash Joule Heating (FJH) phenomenon has been thoroughly investigated in the scientific literature for a long time. However, until very recently, this technique was ineffectively employed to create graphene and other two-dimensional materials. This method significantly raises a substance’s temperature above 3000 K using an electrical charge.
The significant effects that faults, impurities, grain boundaries, many domains, structural disorders, and wrinkles may have on the material’s electrical, thermal and optical properties serve as a reminder of the significance of graphene quality.
2. Graphene-based Devices
Thanks to Graphene’s exceptional qualities, many of our electronic devices work better than they did a few years ago. The constant evolution of the practicality is slowly proving the hypothesis right enabling Graphene’s existence in various fields including and not restricting to energy, electronics, and healthcare.
A new Graphene -based amplifier gives us new abilities. it allows us to explore the terahertz range that is in between the microwave and infrared waves. There has been considerable difficulty in harnessing the energy of terahertz wavelengths due to its minimality.
Now, Graphene has made possible, T-rays, giving it more applications in not only medicine, to enhance the brain study, but also in cosmological technology.
The devices that detect the presence or occurrence of a measurable event in the physical environment like detecting light, sound, movement, moisture, etc., is how sensors are defined.
The wonder material’s excellent optical properties, electrical and heat conductivity, zero mass, and high mobility make Graphene go perfectly into the world of sensors.
Gas sensors, photoelectric sensors, and pressure sensors are just some of them that take advantage of Graphene’s characteristic sensitivity.
Graphene-based wearable technology can also monitor human health by measuring ECG, blood pressure, blood glucose, heart rate, pulse oxygenation, respiration rate, and other vital signs.
2.3 Graphene in Mobile Phones
Let’s delve deeper into the possibilities graphene brings to the table.
Firstly, Graphene-based batteries! Thanks to the myriad of attributes the wonder material holds. Graphene batteries would make light and durable batteries with high-capacity energy storage. It works marvellously as a supercapacitor, a device just like a battery, but the rate of charge and discharge is much higher.
This eureka material is not only being infused in the chassis of mobile phones and laptops but also is being used to make stronger OLED screens as well as flexible screens required for the newly trending phones and laptops.
Electric vehicles (EVs) now come with supercapacitors and batteries made of graphene. Energy must be supplied and stored efficiently for EVs to work properly, which necessitates the use of supercapacitors and high-performance batteries.
The silicon chips are also being replaced with lighter and faster graphene-based chips. We shall look at the PCBs and chips in the later section of this article.
The fascinating black hydrophobic crystalline carbon has been in use as a lubricant for quite some time. We are still talking about Graphene.
It was also added to engine oil, significantly increasing the oil’s flashpoint thereby making the oil less flammable and safe.
Graphene infused with vehicle cleaner or polish also helps us flaunt the shine of our vehicles.
The fact that graphene still has a long way to go might seem disappointing. But the researchers are coming a long way. They are looking to develop a way to infix flexible graphene-based electronics in our clothes allowing us to reduce the size of our wearable electronics considerably.
Not just that, the clothes we wear can now maintain our body temperatures regardless of the environmental conditions. This is achieved by taking advantage of Graphene’s thermal abilities and flexibility.
Furthermore, conductive ink makes it all better. DIY -ers might have heard of this neat development. It’s ink that can replace wires. Can also be used in Printed Circuit Boards. The conductive plays a major role in making electronic antennae, printed resistors and heating elements, etc.
For DIY-ers, conductive ink can be made by blending minute conductive material particles with liquids that are not conducting. The concept is to create a chain of conductive materials behind a liquid medium that may move somewhat freely.
This ground-breaking integration not only resolves the issue of intermittent renewable energy sources but also moves us one step closer to a more dependable and economical solution.
Digital communication might be in trouble soon due to the high energy demand. The silicon-based photonics don’t address this trouble while graphene seems quite promising. Graphene-based optoelectronics not only address the issue but also enhances the speed of communication. We’ve come a long way from sending letters and now are on a path that takes us farther.
Electrochemical biosensors made of graphene have become quite popular because they can assess altered electrical signals brought on by chemical interactions between the target and the biorecognition component.
The switch to graphene-based biosensors puts us at an advantage. It is affordable, sensitive, and faster than the current state-of-the-art technology. This makes our future tremendously interesting.
Conventional Pacemakers and Defibrillators were not exactly compatible with our bodies due to their rigidity. Graphene’s ability as an excellent performing electronic component, strong material, and energy device enhances its abilities as a pacemaker.
As a carbon compound, it works great in our carbon compound bodies accommodating the movement of contraction and expansion of our hearts while still being a 2-dimensional component.
Graphene-based biomedical devices have already shown their potential via remarkable advancements in tissue engineering, disease diagnosis, and medicine administration.
Drug delivery presents a fascinating application for the use of graphene-based healthcare devices. With their extraordinary characteristics, devices made of graphene can deliver medication to specific locations inside the body, reducing the side effects that are frequently connected to medication.
Additionally, these cutting-edge wearable electronic gadgets can accurately track medication levels in the body, giving clinicians the chance to immediately change dosages as necessary. This advancement in technology could help save more lives since they give a relatively greater headstart.
Graphene is harmless for both neurons and non-neural cells enabling its interaction with our nervous system as necessary. There is a con here, Graphene can’t be turned off due to its inherent quality.
For a nanomaterial to be used in biomedical applications, its biocompatibility and toxicity must be taken into account. The shape, size, surface changes, and other characteristics of graphene and graphene-based nanomaterials can have a variety of effects on cells, tissues, and possibly the entire body, thus it is important to thoroughly investigate the potential toxicity.
It is essential for choosing good candidates for therapeutic applications to understand the possible toxicity of graphene-based materials in their interaction with cells and tissues in vitro and in vivo.
The incredible potential for graphene-based devices to significantly improve disease detection is astounding. These cutting-edge sensors can precisely detect a wide range of biomarkers in the body, making them the ideal tool for diagnosing major illnesses like cancer and diabetes.
The utilization of graphene-based devices not only enables medical professionals to efficiently monitor essential health indicators such as blood pressure and heart rate but also gives a tremendous headstart to thinking about what is next and providing a better diagnosis. This material will certainly revolutionize the field of patient care.
2.7 Space Technology
The satellites that are already out there have to deal with an excess in temperature problem. The graphene-based tech will help manage dynamic thermal issues by maintaining the satellites’ temperature.
As one of the toughest materials, graphene helps improve the damage resistance of our technology out there while maintaining its temperature.
Graphene in space will pave the way for our future on Mars making a safer environment for habitat.
The transparent, lightweight and photonic material could completely revolutionize the solar cell industry. It can improve strontium titanate’s thermoelectric effect, which raises the bar for solar cells’ performance. Exciting times lie ahead!
The Graphene-based membranes are used in nuclear power plants to produce heavy water. This contributes to not only cost savings but also aligning with eco-friendly practices. It greatly contributes to environmental protection compared to traditional methods.
Graphene can distill ethanol at room temperature. The distillation of alcohol has undergone a revolution thanks to this amazing discovery, which has increased productivity. How graphene can be used in such creative ways is simply amazing!
The unique physical properties of graphene prevent the fuel crossover phenomenon in fuel cells, ultimately boosting their overall performance. This character of graphene contributes to the advancement of fuel cell technology and its potential to revolutionize the energy industry.
They can efficiently analyze air and water contaminants to assist in detecting possible environmental risks. In order to make sure that food satisfies safety requirements and is suitable for eating, these cutting-edge graphene sensors may also be used to monitor and evaluate food quality.
Graphene-based devices have a lot of potential, but there are a lot of obstacles that need to be addressed. The capacity to produce good quality graphene consistently could be the catalyst we need to speed up the research and development proceedings with regard to graphene-based advancement. It is essential to carry out more studies to develop techniques for producing it that are affordable as well as contributing to the ever-improving lifestyle.
A new and superior composite that is conductive, structurally stronger, more lightweight, and more durable is made by mixing graphene with materials like plastic and metal.
An intriguing issue is to smoothly integrate graphene-based gadgets with current technologies. To assure the viability of large-scale production, the goal is to properly integrate graphene-based devices into conventional electronics and manufacturing processes.
One of the thinnest materials known to man, graphene was discovered to be one hundred and fifty times stronger than a substance of the same weight in steel. It can be stretched to 120 percent of its original length and is as flexible as rubber.
The outstanding capabilities of graphene-based technology have the potential to revolutionize a vast array of sectors, including electronics, energy, and biology. Get ready for an exciting voyage as we watch the fascinating advancements in this area. We are on our way to a more responsible and green future!