There are several computing technologies in this results-driven world; including cloud computing, mobile computing, and grid computing, and one such is quantum computing. And all these computing environments are one of a kind with their primary goal of solving complicated problems by computation methods.
Speaking of quantum computing, yes, you guessed it right, it is about finding answers to complex problems using principles of quantum as its rule book.
1. What are classical and Quantum Computing?
1.1. Classical Computing
Physics is classified into two major studies namely Classical and Quantum mechanics. The computers and technology that have been in present use are classical, in which information is stored in bits (0 or 1). Over time, the technology and scientific approaches have progressed so drastically that it is no wonder that quantum computers will be a reality within a few decades.
1.2. Classical Computing Vs. Quantum Computing
Quantum computing uses quantum concepts to store data in qubits and execute computations faster than any other technology ever discovered. In classical computing, we use 8 bits to represent between 0 to 255(FFFF), while in quantum computing, we use only a few qubits which are more than enough to encode trillions of numbers.
Unlike classical computers, quantum computers can be in a linear combination of both states (1 and 0). I hope this information will be enough to make you believe how incredible Quantum computing is and will thrive in future generations.
1.3. Quantum data: Qubits
Qubits are also known as quantum bits, used to store information in quantum computers. It holds quantum properties, such as a system’s duality nature (wave and particle), energy in terms of quanta (packets of discrete energy rather than continuous), uncertainty principle, etc.
A single qubit is a combination of two quantum states, which under superposition and quantum entanglement phenomena can solve intricate problems in an instant.
2. Quantum Computing Timeline
Initially, David Deutsch came up with the concept of universal quantum computing, however, it was Peter Shor, who developed Shor’s algorithm for finding factors of large numbers.
Following this, many physicists and mathematicians proposed different theories and algorithms, and finally, ‘D-Wave One’, the first quantum computer commercial was released in 2010. In 2016, IBM constructed the world’s first quantum computing on the IBM cloud, according to this study. And as you say, the rest is history.
3. Practical Uses of Quantum Computing
In a recent testing session, scientists claimed that a problem that takes hundreds of years to be solved by classical computers has taken only a few seconds for quantum computers to solve. Isn’t it incredible? Moreover, companies like Google, IBM, Microsoft, and Intel have their quantum computing research divisions. Continue reading to know what they are used for!
It is an analysis of securing data and communication through codes. It protects communication between two parties from an external or third party. Quantum computing makes sure that the two primary users are aware of their privacy if a third party attempts to intrude on their privacy.
For secure communication, the algorithm must be protected at all costs, and not only mathematical algorithms could help, but the addition of fundamental laws of physics, makes it impossible for anyone to hack virtually.
3.2. Weather Forecasting
Quantum computing is the best of the best for doing data simulation computing. Weather forecasting, chemical simulations, and many other things can be simulated by quantum algorithms. Quantum computing provides prediction as well as accuracy to the point, such that natural calamities can be prevented and global warming can be efficiently controlled.
3.3. Drug Formation
Lastly, healthcare is vital when it comes to people’s welfare, as it is what speaks for a country’s development. Quantum computing is useful in identifying the type of disease and creating a molecular formula for the treatment.
With the help of atomic levels, we can decode the signs and symptoms accurately. Different diseases with different molecular structures can be diagnosed and treated in the labs using these quantum computers. This can change the trajectory of pharmacology and biotechnology.
3.4. Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning
Since, the demand for intelligence is growing day by day, especially when it comes to technology. On the other hand, it is possible to improve ML algorithms using quantum computing so that predictions can become more accurate and faster.
In December of 2021, scientists from Caltech, Harvard, Berkeley, and Microsoft collaborated on a project named ‘Quantum Advantage in Learning from Experiments’ based on this study. Subsequently, it was established that quantum learning agents perform drastically better than classical ones.
3.5 Financial Modelling
The economy is as important as a country’s reputation. Lately, customers are expecting plans that are customizable only for their needs. With present computing, it is nearly impossible to analyze data and design it according to every customer.
However, it is a piece of cake for quantum computing. Besides, the most happening issue with the financial sector is fraudulent acts, yet, it can effortlessly be detected when quantum computing exists.
4. Is There Any Quantum Computer in Use?
Surprisingly, IBM has excelled in coming up with its quantum computer, which has enabled over 500 Fortune startups, technologies, research experiments, and whatnot. They have opened this source to several scientists to solve more complex problems, as a few problems require more data than imagined.
They have established this technology with the concepts of quantum logic gates, the quantum software programs, alongside superposition and entanglement through the array of quantum data, to expand the calculation power.
Furthermore, Mercedes Benz has partnered with IBM to explore the future of electric vehicles through the eyes of quantum computing. It can be done by studying the chemical reactions in batteries through classical algorithms, however, it may take years or err at times.
On the other hand, IBM quantum computing has efficiently proven to stimulate chemical reactions in high-performing lithium-ion batteries more accurately and in the blink of an eye.
5. Advantages of Quantum Computing?
5.1. Processing Speed
By quantum superiority, it was claimed that quantum computers could calculate 1 trillion moves per second, 100 million times faster than the present computers.
We can perform multiple calculations at once with this advantage. Using several concepts under quantum as well as mathematics (vector spaces and linear equations) quantum computing does help in resolving multiple queries simultaneously.
We all need privacy when it comes to our data or information. Surprisingly, quantum computing is very good at making high encryption, which is nearly impossible to break through.
Moreover, a recent China satellite launch made use of quantum computing, and was also claimed it was impossible to hack the launch. Turns out they were telling the truth!
5.4. Futuristic Approach
As we all can see, the upcoming world is dependent on artificial intelligence, machine learning, cybersecurity, and data science. So, it is foreseeable for the future of quantum computing in use, as it performs better with data and AI.
6. Disadvantages of Quantum Computing?
6.1. Environmental Sensitive
Probably the biggest challenge in quantum computing is qubit decoherence. A phenomenon known as decoherence occurs when qubits lose their quantum properties as a result of even small disturbances in their environment. Eventually, this causes errors while working with quantum computing.
6.2. Algorithm Creation and Erroneous Precision
In classical computation, creating algorithms is quite easy, because it involves a finite sequence of instructions that are executed step-by-step. However, in quantum computing, it is relatively challenging to execute.
In fact, in 1995, Peter Shor proposed a polynomial-time quantum algorithm for quickly solving factorization of numbers. A key feature of Shor’s algorithm is its ability to dramatically shift our perception about which problems are tractable as a result of quantum computing.
6.3. High Maintenance and Installation
Quantum computers are highly prone to environmental changes, that is they have to be installed only at low temperatures (say negative 460 Fahrenheit). Thus, quantum computers are to be cared for meticulously, and this might cost a fortune.
Quantum computing is still in its advancement process; however, it was asserted that if the technology makes its way to the marketplace, it will surely break the bank.
The cost of a single qubit is approximately ten thousand dollars, and the equipment it requires includes microwave controllers, coaxial cables, and control rooms, which surpass the cost of hundreds of classical computers.
6.5. Security Problems
You might wonder why security matters come with both advantages and disadvantages in quantum computing. Well, scientists hypothesized that if quantum computing is about to make its access, then there is a high chance of the internet breaking into pieces. Because quantum computers are adept at decoding any code on the internet almost instantly.
7. Final Thoughts
Considering all these points about quantum computing, we can simply tell that quantum computers will rule the world one day. But we don’t know when.
From solving complicated problems in a fraction of a second to providing security for our data, it is no wonder why quantum computers are called the future technology.
Besides, we are still in the early stages of quantum computing just like we were introduced to classical computers back then. There is no doubt that it will be on the market within no time at all.