Belief and Opinions'Science In The 1500's'

‘Science In The 1500’s’


In the mid-1500s, a scientific revolution commenced on the grounds of Europe. Around 1600, the Italian scientist Galileo improved the telescope, which invented and made many discoveries in the sector of astronomy. That kick-started the Era of Modern Western Science. Many scientific advances do invent over meanwhile a couple of hundred years.

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Science has roots that go back many years to Greek philosophers, especially Thales and Aristotle. Copernicus launched scientific innovation and new ideas about the solar system. Persian scientists known as Geber introduced the scientific method in the 700s.


The ancient Greeks developed astronomy, which is known as a branch of mathematics, to a highly sophisticated level. It’s a scientific discipline that deals with the observation and prediction of events within the sky supported by the laws of physics. It studies celestial objects like planets, stars, and galaxies. Asteroids, black holes, comets, and dwarf galaxies are related to astronomy.

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Science automates the design of the instruments, interpretation of data instruments produce, and construction of theories. Scientific disciplines involve space exploration, natural phenomena, and physical bodies present in outer space. Spectrography uses instruments that spread out the light from an object by wavelength.

Astronomy helps to study how to prolong the survival of our species. It is tough to analyse the Sun’s impact on the earth’s climate and how it will affect weather and water level. It depends on the physics of the universe and how everything works.

Astronomers need a good understanding of physics, chemistry, and maths and require algebra, trigonometry, and excepting chemistry. Astronomy deals with a vast mixture of topics which is why it is stunning.

When we look at an object in the sky with a telescope, the camera attached to the telescope records a series of numbers that might correspond to how much light different bodies are emitting.


Ancient Greeks created the early paper maps made for navigation and outlining the areas of the earth.

Anaximander was the foremost to draw a map and is thus considered the first cartographer.
Accurate surveying techniques are required to make the earliest plots and estimate the position of various objects by calculating the distance and angle between each point.

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Maps have been one of the most crucial human creations of all time. It allows humans to explain and navigate their way through the world. The Indian tradition influenced other traditions, and the British cartographers proceeded hard on modern concepts in Indian map making.

The Arabs and Europeans took long journeys over land and seas, developed cartography connections, and repeated visits to India-inspired cartography in India. In the beginning, it assembles on paper, afterwards digital mapping, and now digital publishing.
Cartography helps in the representation of the world.

The introduction of aerial photography, satellite imagery, and remote sensing presented considerable development in map-making. And it is shaped by the purpose of the map and the intentions of the map maker. They use digital cameras and scanners to add satellite images to capture visuals for maps.


Cryptography is a young science. It uses codes and cyphers to protect secrets and uses pen, paper, or simple mechanical aids. It came to be thousands of years ago and was used to hide secret messages. The first known evidence of cryptography ground urged in the central chamber of the tomb of the Nobleman Khnumhotep II in Egypt around 1900 BC.

Till the 1960s, cryptography was primarily preserved by the government. Two public domains are Public Encryption Standard(DES) and Public-key Cryptography. Code- was secret, and it was comprehended only by the scribes who transmitted the messages on behalf of kings.

Some call it the science of encrypting and decrypting data. It is based on complex mathematics and provides security services such as authentication, confidentiality, integrity, and non-repudiation. It can guard the information and communication against unauthorised revelation and information access.

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The encrypted information is useless to an unauthorised person without the proper description key. With appropriate use of cryptography, one can secure the confidentiality of data from unauthorised modification and ascertain the source of data.

Earth Science

Earth science is a brief study of the earth’s structure, properties, processes, and biotic evolution. Geology, meteorology, oceanography, and astronomy are the four root areas of earth science.

We know how our earth works, and we use that knowledge to make informed decisions about where to buy or build a home and live peacefully. It qualifies us to think globally and locally and make decisions for our lives as individuals and citizens.


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Earth science is also known as Geology. It is the exploration and the interconnections between the land, ocean, atmosphere, and life of our planet. It also presumes the earth’s history through geologic time and discusses its structure and composition.

It also includes matters, rocks and minerals, energy, and other things such as tectonic plates, water, and soil erosion. Earth scientists predict disasters and help us to live safely. They use doppler radar, satellite data, radiosondes, automated surface-observing systems, supercomputers, and AWIPS.


Exploration is the practice and study of field research using a change of methods, technologies, and approaches to guide question-based scientific aims. It is a clue step in exploring for a fundamental and systematic understanding of the universe.

It is an investigation or a travel experience. It caused ideas, technology, plants, and animals to be exchanged everywhere. It is also known as the ‘Age of Discovery.’

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It increases trade and the connection of the world. The actions manage upon the sublet side as a necessary part of the exploration moreover geological, chemical, and geophysical surveys. Preparations of mandatory roads and drill sites, drilling, sampling, analysis, testing, feasibility, and environmental studies are all part of it.

They use an astrolabe, magnetic compass, caravel, sextant, and Mercator’s projection. Reasons for exploration are; review, curiosity, national pride, better trading routes, religion, wealth, wealth, foreign goods, and fame.


Drugs usually operate in the context of the Christian church. Medical knowledge acquired from bygone theory captived monasteries and the highly educated.

Hospitals for the elderly and the ill were scampered by religious orders, which could maintain sickrooms for their members and operate hospitals for others. When medicines did not assist, people often turned to saints and longed for a miracle.

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The distinguishing line between magic and medicine is not always evident in medieval sources. The sick might have turned to witchcraft.

Another area of medical concern was acts toward wounds, ruptures, and lesions whereby requires a surgeon. Headache and aching joints proffer treated with sweet-smelling herbs. A mixture of henbane and hemlock was applied to joints for aching and coriander for reducing fever.


Pharmaceutical medicine was invented in 1804 by Fried Sertuner. In medieval times, it was familiar as Apothecaries. The father of medicine described the body as devised of four senses of humour- yellow bile, phlegm, black bile, and blood; our body supervises four elements- fire, water, earth, and air.

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The Arabs are considerable translators and sequencers of medical texts. Pharmaceuticals keep in touch on clay tablets, actually one of the most researched fields in the academic industry.

Medicines are composed of herbs. Coldwater, leaves, dirt, or mud are pre-owned as soothing agents. In the 15th century, the printing press escalated medicinal textbooks and formularies. The optometrist continues to expand as a patient’s judgment becomes a progressively important function ensuring that patient-centred care directs our future.


Technology uses science to solve problems, and science uses technology to make discoveries. The main objective of science is to answer doubts and increase grip.

Technology is the collection of procedures and undertakings used in imminent goods or services. Technology is the assortment of procedures and undertakings employed in close at hand products or services. It includes ways, systems, and devices that end in the knowledge domain used for sensible functions. Technology simplifies human life and fulfils the necessity of individuals. Every attribute of the lab equipment is an example of technology.


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There are four types of technology :

  1. Mechanical
  2. Electronic
  3. Industrial and manufacturing
  4. Medical

Technology is the consequence of scientific knowledge. It can be beneficial or harmful as well as stresses inventions. It also provides devices for a better and more convenient lifestyle. The development in the branch of technology paves the way for research and development in the department of science. 

Present scenario

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Modern civilisation is the endowment of modern science. Nowadays, we tend to live in an age of science.

Day and night, we use innumerable discoveries and inventions of science.
Electricity is an incredible power beyond several scientific inventions. The electric lamp lights up our houses while the radio, television, telegraph, telephone, cinema, tape-recorder, photo-copier, VCR, computers, mills, factories, electric trains, printing press, cookers, irons, and sewing machines run down electrically.

Science has conquered space and time. Today, touring vast distances in short durations by trains, planes, or rockets is a boon.

Science has discovered the causes of most diseases and their remedies. A deadly disease like TB persisted and befell conquered. Cholera is obsolete and under control. Smallpox has done away. The X-ray and the antibiotic were a big help to humans. A cornea transplant, and bypass surgery, are marvels of medical science.

But science is not an unmixed blessing. Science has also invented guns, bombs and missiles, battleships and warplanes, chemical weapons, and nuclear warheads. Science indeed has both favours and curses.


During the 1500s and 1600s, few exceptional individuals allocated the foundation for science, starting with observation. Throughout this duration, many Greek thinkers expressed ideas that are called scientific.

Europeans’ scholars could study ancient Greek writings because their work, and it is preserved ancient knowledge and spread interest in science. Time of month was a fundamental transformation in scientific ideas covering mathematics, physics, astronomy, and biology in institutions that underwrite scientific investigation. The middle ages were long centuries of stability in the conceptual world.

Science and technology have a scholarly smack on all human activities. Around the 1500s, a scientific revolution in Europe’s approximate movement pointed toward a future shaped by a new way of thinking about the physical universe. The Science branch is a remarkable way of gaining knowledge about the world.

A new view of nature makes an appearance during the scientific revolution. When we look back our ancient times, we see our world is much more developed. Now, the world is full of electronic types of machinery. Many scientists discovered equipment for easy survival.

People are more civilised now. We focus on the qualitative view, not on the quantitative aspect. The change to medieval ideas of science occurred for;

  • Combination
  • Inference of new experimental methods
  • Ability to build an endowment of existing philosophy
  • An institution that enables academics to bring out

India is not behind once when it involves science and technology. Over centuries, it has harboured reliable technology updates giving its individuals a far better life. The Indian economy is broadly boosted through science and technology subdivides of astronomy, astrophysics, space exploration, and nuclear power. India is becoming more innovative and progressive tweak its economic condition.

The implementation of technology in the research work promotes a better life ahead. Similarly, life science in India progresses rapidly, creating life healthy and careful. Indian scientists harness the latest technology to introduce new medical products for people and offer them at the lowest price.

Technology has assuredly changed the way we live our lives. Not a single piece of technology has been unsuccessful and is continuously progressing. Be it a small industry or huge, technology is a boom in your society.

Humans try to upgrade with technology. Technology can encompass ancient technologies like calculators, calendars, and batteries. In the future, the technology balances Blockchain technologies, smart cities, more advanced intelligent devices, quantum computers, and quantum encryption. It is a good sign for the coming generation.



  • Sanjeeta laxmi Chandra

    Sanjeeta is an a writer with a passion for exploring the unknown, whether it be through the lens of future events or through the realm of imagination. Since she began her writing journey in 2022, she has been honing her skills and finding joy in creating captivating stories and thought-provoking pieces. Along with her studies in commerce, Sanjeeta also has a fascination with science and fiction and loves incorporating these interests into her works. Sanjeeta hopes to share her love of writing with you and take you on an amazing journey through her words! Education: Commerce Student

Sanjeeta laxmi Chandra
Sanjeeta laxmi Chandra
Sanjeeta is an a writer with a passion for exploring the unknown, whether it be through the lens of future events or through the realm of imagination. Since she began her writing journey in 2022, she has been honing her skills and finding joy in creating captivating stories and thought-provoking pieces. Along with her studies in commerce, Sanjeeta also has a fascination with science and fiction and loves incorporating these interests into her works. Sanjeeta hopes to share her love of writing with you and take you on an amazing journey through her words! Education: Commerce Student


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